Dr. Smolowitz graduated from Purdue University, School of Veterinary Medicine in 1981. She finished a residency in pathology at Angell Memorial Animal Hospital, Boston, MA, in 1984 and a Bang Fellowship at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in 1987 where she studied hemocytic leukemia in soft shell clams. From 1987 to 1989, she was a guest researcher with Dr. John Stegeman (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) and studied pollutant effects resulting in P 450 enzyme induction in tissues of fish (especially salmon exposed to the Valdez oil spill). In 1988, she was hired by the Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Medicine and Pathology, University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary School, located at the MBL. She worked for several years as an aquatic pathologist and conducted research projects on diseases of aquatic animals. In 1999, she was hired by the MBL as the Laboratory Animal Veterinarian and as an associate researcher. From 2008 to 2009, she was the Director of Animal Health at the New England Aquarium. In 2009, she became the director of a new Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) at Roger Williams University in Bristol, R.I.
In addition to teaching duties at RWU, Dr. Smolowitz has taught invertebrate anatomy and medicine for Aquavet and Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine and fish anatomy and physiology at Tufts for several years.
Her research has included understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of diseases of commercially important bivalves and various species of fish used in the laboratory. A major focus of research has been the identification and description of shell disease, especially Epizootic Shell Disease (ESD) that occurs in populations of American lobsters and the pathophysiology of infection of hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) by a protistian, QPX and, more recently, development of diagnostic test methods for bivalves and evaluation of pathogenic Vibrio spp. accumulation levels in oysters and clams.
ROXANNA M. SMOLOWITZ
Roxanna Smolowitz, DVM
Director, Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory
Visiting Assistant Professor
Dept. of Arts and Sciences, MNS 246
One Old Ferry Road
Bristol, RI 02809
1975-76 B.A. Indiana State University
1977-81 D.V.M. Purdue University
1982-84 Resident in Pathology, Angell Memorial Animal Hospital, Boston, MA
1985-87 Bay Foundation Fellowship, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA
1986-89 Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, MBL, Woods Hole, MA
1988-95 Visiting Investigator, WHOI, Woods Hole, MA
1989-95 Research Associate in Pathology, School of Vet. Med, UPenn
1995-99 Senior Research Investigator in Pathology, School of Vet. Med., University of Pennsylvania
1999- 2008 Laboratory Animal Veterinarian/Aquatic Veterinary
Pathologist/Associate Scientist, Marine Biological Laboratory
2008 - 2009 Director of Animal Health, New England Aquarium, Boston, MA
2009 – Visiting Assistant Professor and Director of the Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory,RWU, Bristol, RI
2011 – Visiting Scientist, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA
2011- Visiting Investigator, WHOI, Woods Hole, MA
Service on Committees and Institutional Boards:
Major Teaching Responsibilities:
U. Penn. Course, Aquavet I
- Introduction to Aquatic Invertebrate Medicine and Pathology (32 contact hours)
U. Penn. Course, Aquavet II
- Comparative Pathology of Aquatic Invertebrates (8 contact hours)
Cummings School of Vetertinary Medicine Tufts University,
1st year veterinary students -Comparative anatomy of Fishes (2 contact hours)
3rd year veterinary students -Invertebrate medicine (2 contact hours)
Responsible for teaching 6/7 credit hours/semester including Principles of Aquatic Animal Husbandry and Introduction to Biology I and II.
Selected Original Papers:
Smolowitz, R.M. and C.L. Reinisch. 1986. Indirect peroxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies specific for Mya arenaria neoplastic cells. J. Invert. Path. 48:139-145.
Smolowitz, R.M., D.L. Miosky and C.L. Reinisch. 1989. Ontogeny of leukemic cells of the soft shell clam. J. Invert. Path. 52:41-51.
Smolowitz, R., M.J. Moore and J.J. Stegeman. 1989. Cellular distribution of cytochrome P-450E in winter flounder liver with degenerative and neoplastic disease. Marine Environ. Res. 28: 441-446.
Moore, M.J., R. Smolowitz and J.J. Stegeman. 1989. Cellular alterations preceding neoplasia in Pseudopleuronectes americanus from Boston Harbor, MA, USA. Marine Environ. Res. 28: 425-429.
Leavitt, D.F., J. McDowell Capuzzo, R. Smolowitz, D.L. Miosky, B.A. Lancaster and C.L. Reinisch. 1990. Hematopoietic neoplasia in Mya arenaria: Prevalence and indices of physiological condition. Mar. Biol. 105: 313-321.
Smolowitz, R.M., M.E. Hahn and J.J. Stegeman. 1991. Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P-450IA1 induced by 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in liver and extrahepatic tissues of the teleost Stenotomus chrysops (scup). Drug Met. and Disp. 19:113-123.
Smolowitz, R.M., R.A. Bullis, and D.A. Abt. 1992. Pathological cuticular changes of winter impoundment shell disease preceding and during intermolt in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Biol. Bull. 183:99-112.
Smolowitz, R.M., R.A. Bullis, D.A. Abt, and L. Leibovitz. 1993. Pathologic observations on the infection of Pagurus spp. by plerocercoids of Calliobothrium verticillatum (Rudolphi, 1819; Van Benden, 1850). J. Invert. Path. 62:185-190.
Hahn, Mark E., Teresa M. Lamb, Mary E. Schultz, Roxanna M. Smolowitz and John J. Stegeman. 1993. Cytochrome P4501A induction and inhibition by 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl and presence of the Ah receptor in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. Aquatic Tox. 26:185-208.
Wikfors, Gary H. and Roxanna M. Smolowitz. 1995. Experimental and histological studies of four life-history stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to a cultured strain of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Biol. Bull.188:313-328.
Wiedmer, M., M.J. Fink, J.J. Stegeman, R. Smolowitz, G.D. Marty, D.E. Hinton. 1996. Cytochrome P-450 induction and histopathology in preemergent pink salmon from oiled spawning sites in Prince William Sound. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 18: 509-517.
Smolowitz, Roxanna and Sandra E. Shumway. 1997. Possible cytotoxic effects of the dinoflagellate, Gyrodinium aureolum, on juvenile bivalve molluscs. Aquaculture Inter. 5: 291-300.
Guiney, Patrick D, Roxanna M. Smolowitz, Richard E. Peterson and John J. Stegeman. 1997. Correlation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) - induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in vascular endothelium with toxicity in early life stages of Lake Trout. Tox and Appl. Pharm. 143: 256-273.
Kleinschuster, S. J., R. Smolowitz and J. Parent. 1998. In Vitro life cycle and propogation of quahog parasite unknown. J. Shellfish. Res. 17: 75-78.
Smolowitz, R., D. Leavitt and F Perkins. 1998. Observations of a Protistan disease similar to QPX in Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clams) fro the coast of Massachusetts. J. Invert. Pathol. 71: 9-25.
P.A. Mass,S. J. Kleinschuster, M. Dykstra, R. Smolowitz and J. Parent. 1999. Molecular characterization of QPX (Quahog parasite Unknown), a pathogen of Mercenaria mercenaria. J. Shellfish Res. 18: 561-567.
S. T. Tettelback, C. Smith, R. Smolowitz, K. Tetrault and S. Dumais. 1999. Evidence for fall spawning of northern bay scallops Argopecten irradians irradians (Lamarck 1819) in New York. J. Shellfish Res. 18: 47-58.
C. Brother, E. Marks and R. Smolowitz. 2000. Conditions affecting growth and zoosporulation of protistan parasite QPX in culture. Bio. Bull. 199: 200-201.
Noga, E.J., R. Smolowitz and L.H. Khoo. 2000. Pathology of shell disease in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, (Decapoda: Portunidae). J. of Fish Diseases 23: 389-399.
Astrofsky, K.M., M.D. Schrenzel, R.A. Bullis, R.M. Smolowitz, J.G. Fox. 2000. Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Atypical Mycobacterium spp. Infections in Established Laboratory Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) Comp. Med 50: 666-672.
Smolowitz, R., J. Hanley, H. Richmond. 2002. A three-year retrospective study of abdominal tumors in zebrafish maintained in an aquatic laboratory animal facility. Bio. Bull. 203: 265-266.
Sunila, I., NA Stokes, R. Smolowitz, RC Karney, EM Burreson. 2002. Haplosporidium costale (seaside organism), a parasite of the eastern oyster, is present in Long Island Sound. J Shellfish Res 21: 113-118.
Anderson, R.S., B.S. Kraus, S. McGladdery and R. Smolowitz. 2003. QPX, a pathogen of quahogs (hard clams), employs mucoid secretions to resist host antimicrobial agents. J. Shellfish Res. 22: 205-208.
Chistoserdov, A., R. Smolowitz, F. Mirasol, and A. Hsu. 2005. Culture-Dependent Characterization of the Microbial Community Associated with Epizootic Shell Disease Lesions in American Lobster, Homarus americanus. J. Shellfish Res. 24: 741-748.
Smolowitz, R., A. Chistoserdov and A. Hsu. 2005. A Pathological description of epizootic shell disease in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, H. Milne Edwards 1837. Submitted to J. Shellfish Res. 24: 749-756.
Lyons , M.M., Roxanna Smolowitz, Kevin R. Uhlinger, Rebecca J. Gast, J. Evan Ward. 2005. Lethal marine snow: Pathogen of bivalve mollusc concealed in marine aggregates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50: 1983-1988.
Lyons MM, Smolowitz R, Dungan C, Roberts SB. 2006. Development of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the hard clam pathogen, Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 72:45-52.
Gast, R.J., E. Cushman, D.M. Moran, K.R. Uhlinger, D. Leavitt and R. Smolowitz. 2006. DGGE-based detection method for Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) from environmental samples and clam tissues. Journal of Shellfish Research. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 70: 115-122.
Gauger, E., R. Smolowitz, K. Uhlinger, J. Casey, M. Gomez-Chiarri. 2006. Vibrio harveyi and other bacterial pathogens in cultured summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Aquaculture 260: 10-20.
Ford, S. and R. Smolowitz. 2007. Infection dynamics of an oyster parasite in its newly expended range. Mar. Biol. 151:119-133.
Gast, R, D. Moran, C. Audemard, M. Lyons, J.Defaveri, K. Reece, D. Leavitt, R. Smolowitz. 2008. Environmental Distribution and Persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX). Dis. Aquat. Org. 81:219-229.
Tlusty, M., R. Smolowitz, H. Halvorson, S. DeVito. 2007. Host Suscedptibility Hypothesis for Shell Disease in American Lobsters. J. Aq. An. Health 19: 215-225.
Calvo, LMR, SE Ford, JN Kraeuter, DF Leavitt, R. Smolowitz. 2007. Influence of host genetic origin and geographic location on QPX disease in northern quahogs (= hard clams), Mercenaria mercenaria. J Shellfish Res 26: 109-119.
Spitsbergen, J., V. Blazer, P. Bowser, K. Cheng, K. Cooper, T. Cooper, S. Frasca Jr., D. Groman, C. Harper, J. Law, G. Marty, R. Smolowitz, J. St. Leger, D. Wolf, J. Wolf. 2008. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future. Comp. Biochem and Phys 149: 249-257.
Quinn, R.A., R. Smolowitz, A. Chistoserdov. 2009. Eukaryotic communities in epizootic shell disease lesions of the American lobster (Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards). J. Shellfish Res. 28: 1-4.
De Faveri, J., R. Smolowitz and S. Roberts. 2009. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Perkinsus marinus in the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. J. Shellfish Res. 28: 459-464.
Hégaret, H., R. Smolowitz, I. Sunila, S. Shumway, J. Alix, M. Dixon, G. Wikfors. 2010. Combined effects of a parasite, QPX, and the harmful-alga, Prorocentrum minimum on northern quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria. Marine Environ. Res. 69: 337-344.
Quinn, R.A., A. Metzler, R.M. Smolowitz, M. Tlusty, and A.Y.Chistoserdov. 2012. Exposures of Homarus americanus shell to three bacterial isolated from naturally occurring epizootic shell diseae lesions. J. Shellfish Res. 31: 485- 493.
Tlusty, M.F., Halvoarson, H.O., Smolowitz, R. and Sharma. U. (eds) 2005. Lobster Shell Disease Workshop. Aquatic Forum Series 05-1. New England Aquarium, Boston, MA
Smolowitz, R., Chistoserdov, A., and A. Hsu. 2005. Epizootic shell disease in American lobster, Homarus americanus. IN (Tlusty, M.F., Halvoarson, H.O., Smolowitz, R. and Sharma. U. , eds) Lobster Shell Disease Workshop. Aquatic Forum Series 05-1. New England Aquarium, Boston, MA. Pages 1-11.
Smolowtiz, R. 2006. Gastropods. In (G. Lewbart Ed.) Invertebrate Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Pps: 65-78.
Berkins, I. and R. Smolowitz. 2006. Handling of Pathological Samples from Invertebrates. In (G. Lewbart, Ed.) Invertebrate Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Pps: 263-274.
Smolowtiz, R. 2012. Gastropods. In (G. Lewbart Ed.) Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Pps: 95-111.
Berkins, I., R. Smolowitz and G. Lewbart. 2012. Diagnostic techniques and sample handling. In (G. Lewbart, Ed.) Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Pps: 389-400.
Peters, E.C., R.M. Smolowitz and T.L. Reynolds. 2012. Neoplasia. In (G. Lewbart, Ed.) Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Pps: 431-439.
Abigail (Abbey) Scro is the Technician in the Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) located in the Marine and Natural Sciences building. Abbey began working in the ADL in May 2015 after graduating with two Bachelor of Science degrees in Marine Biology and Mathematics from Roger Williams University.
Abbey’s passion for science, especially marine life, began at a young age while growing up in Upstate New York. Her enthusiasm was sparked by a research project on Ctenophores (‘comb jellies’), gelatinous animals that propel themselves through the water column with rows of cilia. Abbey’s interest in marine biology brought her to Rhode Island for her undergraduate education.
At Roger Williams University, Abbey was granted the opportunity to participate in a student research project in the fall of 2012. Mentored by Dr. David Taylor, Abbey began developing a molecular protocol to detect winter flounder in blue crab stomach contents. She used a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for winter flounder and ran that against macerated, unidentifiable stomach contents from blue crabs caught in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and the connecting tidal rivers. Abbey’s undergraduate work lead her to connect with Dr. Roxanna Smolowitz and the ADL.
Abbey is one of two technicians in the Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory where she helps to manage the lab. Her own work focuses on molecular diagnostic techniques, specifically those dealing with disease common to the Eastern Oyster. Currently, Abbey is focusing on using quantitative multiplex PCR to detect pathogenic Vibrio sp. in oysters grown in Narragansett Bay, RI.
Abbey is grateful for the opportunities that have been presented to her through Roger Williams University and is looking forward to expanding her knowledge of pathological diagnostic research.