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Diagnostic Services

1Arya et al., 2005.  Basic principles of real-time quantitative PCR. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. Vol. 5, No. 2, Pages 209-219.  

2Howard DW, Lewis EJ, Keller BJ, et al. Histological Techniques for Marine Bivalve Mollusks and Crustaceans. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 5. Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; 2004.

3Innis, M., Gelfand, D., Sninsky, J. and White, T. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications.  Academic Press. Boston; 1990

4Innis, M., Gelfand, D., and Sninsky, J. PCR Applications: Protocols for Functional Genomics. Academics Press. Boston; 1999.

5Life Technologies- Real-time PCR handbook; 2012. http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/Products-and-Services/Applications/PCR/real-time-pcr/qpcr-education/real-time-pcr-handbook.html

6Ray, S. M. (1952) A culture technique for the diagnosis of infections with Dermocystidium marinum, Mackin, Owen and Collier, in oysters. Science, 166:360-361.

7Smolowitz, R. 2013. A Review of Current State of Knowledge Concerning Perkinsus marinus Effects on Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) (the Eastern Oyster).  Veterinary Pathology OnlineFirst, published on March 5, 2013.

8http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/genome/probe/doc/TechQPCR.shtml

9 http://users.ugent.be/~avierstr/principles/pcr.html 

American Lobster

1"American Lobster." New England Aquarium, 2013. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. 

2"Lobster." Animal Fact Files. BBC, Aug. 2010. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.

3Lydon, Don. "Homarus Americanus." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.

4Romanowsky, Kate. "Overview of Homarus Americanus: The American Lobster." The American Lobster. Pictou-Antigonish Regional Library, Jan. 2002. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. 

5Williams, Austin B. Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1984. Print.

Bay Scallop

1"Bay Scallop." Habitat Restoration. University of Rhode Island. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

2"Bay Scallop." Maryland Fish Facts. University of Maryland. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

3Puglisi, Melany P. "Argopecten Irradians Concentricus." Smithsonian Marine Station, 1 Oct. 2008. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. 

Blue Crab

1"Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus)." Texas Parks and Wildlife, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.

2Bodden, Samantha. "Callinectes Sapidus." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2013

3Hill, K. "Callinectes Sapidus." Smithsonian Marine Station, 11 Oct. 2004. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.

4Williams, Austin B. Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1984. Print.

Blue Mussel

1"Common Mussel." Animal Fact Files. BBC, July 2005. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

2Grzimek, Bernhard, Sean F. Craig, Dennis A. Thoney, Neil Schlager, and Michael Hutchins, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2004. Print.

3Morris, Robert H., Donald P. Abbott, and Eugene C. Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1980. Print.

4Zagata, Craig, et al. "Mytilus Edulis." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

Bonamiosis

1Arzul I, Gagnaire B, Bond C, Chollet B, Morga B, Ferrand S, Robert M, Renault T. 2009. Effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of Bonamia ostreae, a parasite infecting flat oysters Ostrea edulis. Dis Aquat Org 85: 67-75.

2 “Infection with Bonamia ostreae” World Assembly of Delegates of OIE (World Organization of Animal Health). May 2010. Web. June 2016.

Dermo

1Baker, Shirley., et al. Introduction to Infectious Diseases in Hard Clams. Rep. no. FA125. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Oct. 2006. Web. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

3Leavitt, Dale, Roxanna Smolowitz, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, and Dave Beutel. "Seaside Organism (SSO) in Rhode Island." Preparation of Shellfish for Disease Diagnostics. Groton, CT. Dec. 2012.

Eastern Oyster

1"Eastern Oyster." Field Guide. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

2Grzimek, Bernhard, Sean F. Craig, Dennis A. Thoney, Neil Schlager, and Michael Hutchins, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2004. Print.

3Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

4Puglisi, Melany P. "Crassostrea Virginica." Smithsonian Marine Station, 1 Oct. 2008. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

Ichthyophonus

1 Hershberger, PK. 2012. Ichthyophonus Disease (Ichthyophoniasis). In: Fish Health Section Blue Book: Suggested Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Finfish and Shellfish Pathogens. American Fisheries Society. Web. June 2016.

2Huntsberger, CJ, JR Hamlin, RJ Smolowitz, RM Smolowitz.  Prevalence and description of Ichthyophonus sp. in yellowtail founder (Limanda ferruginea) from a seasonal survey on Georges Bank.  Submitted to Fisheries Research.

Juvenile Oyster Disease

1Barber, Bruce J. A Guide to Bivalve Diseases for Aquaculturists in the Northeastern U.S. University of Maine SeaGrant. Web. http://www.seagrant.umaine.edu/files/pdf-global/bivdis.PDF.

2Diseases of Concern to New England Shellfish Growers. Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Print.

3Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

Leukemia

1Barber, Bruce J. A Guide to Bivalve Diseases for Aquaculturists in the Northeastern U.S. University of Maine SeaGrant. Web. http://www.seagrant.umaine.edu/files/pdf-global/bivdis.PDF.

2Cooper, Keith R., et al. “The Course and Mortality of Hematopoetic Neoplasm in the Soft-Shell Clam, Mya arenariaJournal of Invertebrate Pathology 39:149-157. 1982.

3Delaporte, Maryse, et al. “Assessment of haemic neoplasia in different soft shell clam Mya arenaria populations from eastern Canada by flow cytometry” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98: 190-197. 2008.

4Diseases of Concern to New England Shellfish Growers. Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Print.

5Dopp, Elke, et al. “Detection of micronuclei in hemocytes of Mya arenaria: association with leukemia and induction with an alkylating agent” Aquatic Toxicology 34: 31-45. 1996.

6Pariseau, Julie et al. “Potential link between exposure to fungicides chlorothalonil and mancozeb and haemic neoplasia development in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria: A laboratory experiment.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 503-514. 2006.

Multinucleated Sphere Unknown

1Barber, Bruce J. A Guide to Bivalve Diseases for Aquaculturists in the Northeastern U.S. University of Maine SeaGrant. Web. http://www.seagrant.umaine.edu/files/pdf-global/bivdis.PDF.

2Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

3Leavitt, Dale, Roxanna Smolowitz, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, and Dave Beutel. "Seaside Organism (SSO) in Rhode Island." Preparation of Shellfish for Disease Diagnostics. Groton, CT. Dec. 2012.

Mycobacteria

1Grimm C, Huntsberger C, Markey K, Inglis S, Smolowitz R. 2016. Identification of a Mycobacterium sp. as the causative agent of orange nodular lesions in the Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus. Dis Aquat Org 118: 247-258

Nematode

1 “Sulcascaris sulcate: Loggerhead Stomach Worm.” UPenn Vetrinary Medicine D.V.E.I. Web. June 2016

2 Deardorff, TL. 1989. Ocurrence of larval Sulcascaris sulcate (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the Calico Scallop, Argopecten gibbus, collected along the Eastern coast of Florida, with comments on histopathology. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 56(1): 82-85.

Quahog Parasite Unknown

1Baker, Shirley, et al. Introduction to Infectious Diseases in Hard Clams. Rep. no. FA125. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Oct. 2006. Web. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2Diseases of Concern to New England Shellfish Growers. Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Print.

3"Managing Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) Disease." Marine Extension Bulletin (2008). Woods Hole SeaGrant. Web.

Quahog

1Burdette, B. "Mercenaria mercenaria" Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, 2001. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

2Gofas, S. “Mercenaria mercenaria” World Register of Marine Species, 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2013 .

3Grzimek, Bernhard, Sean F. Craig, Dennis A. Thoney, Neil Schlager, and Michael Hutchins, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2004. Print.

4"Hard Clam." Field Guide. Chesapeake Bay Program, 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. 

5"Hard Shell Clam." Chesapeake Bay Life. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

6Hill, K. "Mercenaria Mercenaria." Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, 8 Nov. 2004. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

7Kraeuter , J.N., and M Castagna. "Biology of the Hard Clam." Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science.31. Netherlands: 2001

8Kraeuter, J. N. “Mercenaria mercenaria” FAO Cultured Aquatic Species Programme, 1 Jan. 2004. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

9Morris, Robert H., Donald P. Abbott, and Eugene C. Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1980. Print.

Sea Scallop

1Gosling, Elizabeth. Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology and Culture. Oxford: Fishing News, 2003. Print.

2Hart, Deborah R., and Antoine S. Chute. Sea Scallop, Placopecten Magellanicus, Life History and Habitat Characteristics. Publication. 2nd ed. Wods Hole: National Marine Fisheries Service, 2004. Essential Fish Habitat Source Document. NOAA. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

3Hodges, Kathryn. "Placopecten Magellanicus." Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, 2001. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. 
 

Shell Disease

Soft Shell Clam

1"Soft Shell Clam." Chesapeake Bay Life. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

2"Soft Shell Clam." Field Guide. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

3"Soft-shelled Clam." Habitat Restoration. University of Rhode Island. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

4M. E. Cross, et al. “The Reproductive Biology of the Softshell Clam, Mya arenaria, in Ireland, and the Possible Impacts of Climate Variability,” Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 2012, Article ID 908163, 2012.

5Morris, Robert H., Donald P. Abbott, and Eugene C. Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1980. Print

6Powers, Sean P., et al. “Distribution of the invasive bivalve Mya arenaria L. on intertidal flats of southcentral Alaska” Journal of Sea Research 55.3 April 2006, Pages 207–216.

Seaside Organism

1Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

2Leavitt, Dale, Roxanna Smolowitz, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, and Dave Beutel. "Seaside Organism (SSO) in Rhode Island." Preparation of Shellfish for Disease Diagnostics. Groton, CT. Dec. 2012.

Trematodes

Vibrio

1Kennedy, Victor S., Roger Newell, and Albert F. Eble, eds. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1996. Print

Yellowtail Flounder

1 Limanda ferruginea: Yellowtail Flounder. 2014. Encyclopedia of Life. Web. June2016.

2 Johnson D, Morse W, Berrien P, and Vitaliano J. 1999. Yellowtail Flounder, Limanda ferruginea, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-140. U.S. Department of Commerce, National oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. September 1999. Web. June 2016.

3 Bigelow, H. and Scroeder, W. 2002. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. United States Government Printing Office (WA): Untied States Department of the Interior. The Flounders and Soles p. 271.

4 The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. August 1996. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Web. June 1016.